When excluding diary, alternative forms of diary or calcium substitutes need to be considered. By consuming large amounts of dark green vegetables (such as spinach, kale, broccoli) you should obtain some calcium. You can also try some calcium fortified soy, almond and coconut milks which are vegan friendly.
Proteins are made up of amino acids, and there are 20 different amino acids in the body, 9 of which are essential (the body cannot make them therefore they must be ingested). Protein from animal products is generally called complete protein as it contains all the essential amino acids (EAA), such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products. Incomplete proteins have low amounts of some of the essential amino acids and therefore it is important to combine different incomplete protein sources to get the full amino acid profile. A good source of protein in vegan diets is from legumes. Legumes are foods that have a pod such as; peas, beans, peanuts, alfalfa. Seeds and nuts can also contain good sources of protein (and omega-3 oils) and smaller amounts in rice. Different protein sources over the day will ensure adequate amounts of EAA are eaten.
Stock up on plenty of wholegrains these are all safe to eat and will contribute significantly to fibre intake.
As with many foods, there are plenty of vegan processed foods from vegan mayonnaise, vegan chocolate to vegan burger patties. Processed foods usually contain some types of additive, preservative, colour, flavour enhancer, or stabilizer which is not good for your health if consumed in excess. Stick to healthy whole foods where ever possible.
Soaking beans is recommended to reduce the cooking time and to remove some of the sugars from the beans, however it is not a must. The soaking of the beans may improve the digestibility of the beans by removing some of the lectins, phytic acids and enzyme inhibitors. If you are soaking the beans the water should always be discarded and the beans rinsed before cooking.